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During the award ceremonies hosted by Women Against Pornography, other advertisers were celebrated and rewarded by feminist activists for "their positive portrayal of women."

In 1985, for instance, during its fourth annual awards ceremony, the group honored brands with what they referred to as Ms. Liberty (Libby) awards. Among them was American Express, recognized for "one ad showing a Black businesswoman disembarking from a plane with a briefcase in one hand and a teddy bear in the other, and another ad showing male and female co-workers celebrating a woman's promotion." Toys To Grow On was also recognized for "an ad presenting a little girl in engineer's overalls calling instructions into a field telephone" as well as "United Negro College Fund for its television portrayal of a young Black woman's struggle to fulfill her dream of being a doctor." Much like today, this was a time of impassioned activism.

By then, the fight for inclusive representation had been going on for years. The women's liberation movement owed much to the foundation laid by the Black freedom struggle and the civil rights activities of the sixties, years earlier. It was the Civil Rights Movement that gave a platform to those who openly challenged blatantly racist, ethnocentric, and sexist stereotypes so rampant in the advertising industry at the time. During this period, criticism increased over portrayals of historically marginalized groups that were "considered stereotypical, limited, and in many cases derogatory" (Williams et al., 2015). Black leaders were the first to demand that marketers invest in a more accurate representation of cultural diversity in the United States.

The change was slow but the pressure was felt. In 1967, DDB was one of the first agencies to run a racially and ethnically diverse campaign, one of the first of its kind (Sivulka, 1998).

William Bernbach, who founded DDB with James Edwin Doyle and Maxwell Dane, was the creative voice behind a campaign for Henry S. Levy and Sons, a major Brooklyn bakery, called Levy's for short. The campaign was a humorous play on "the Jewish rye," the bakery's most famous type of bread. The copy, which was intended to make the bakery "attractive to a wide range of potential customers," read, "You don't have to be Jewish to love Levy's" (Barthel, 1988). While William Taubin, a male copywriter at DDB, received credit at the time, the now-historic tagline was actually written by Judy Petras, a Jewish woman copywriter at the agency (Fox, 2014).

The ads were far from being culturally sensitive in their portrayals by present-day standards, but the campaign nevertheless featured Black, Asian, Italian, Chinese, and Native American models in ways never seen before. At the time, it was one of the first public ad campaigns to incorporate historically underrepresented groups and intentionally highlight the cultural and racial diversity of New York City. The campaign was ultimately highly successful and made Levy's the largest seller of rye bread in the city.

At the same time, attention to issues of cultural diversity in advertising was also given in academic circles. Two years after the DDB campaign for Levy's, a research study published by Dr. Harold H. Kassarjian (1969) hypothesized that the frequency of Black models, actors, and celebrities would have increased by 1965 as the advertiser "was unable to hide from his social responsibility." The opposite was found to be true.



INTRODUCTION: A New Paradigm for Culturally Fluent Brands

1. Redefining Brand Success: The Essentials of Cultural Fluency
2. Unlocking the 4Cs of Cultural Intelligence
3. Culture: Building the Foundation for an Inclusive Marketing
4. Communication: From Performative Marketing to Inclusive

5. Consciousness: Building Ethical Marketing Practices Beyond
6. Community: Brand Accountability and Co-Creation as the New Model
of Brand Engagement
7. Now What? Developing Cultural Intelligence Capabilities
8. What's Next? The Future of Culturally Intelligent Marketing

Conclusion: Becoming a Catalyst for Inclusive Marketing

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